Psoriasis is a widespread chronic skin disease characterized by a rash of flat papules, which tend to merge into large plaques that are very quickly covered with loose silvery-white spots.
Psoriasis is characterized by periods of worsening condition (relapses) and temporal well-being when symptoms of disease become less. This disease is not infectious and the patient is not dangerous to others. Because the appearance of psoriasis is not associated with the microorganisms.
The primary element in psoriasis is a single papule is pink or red in color that is covered with lots of loose silvery-white scales.
As a rule, the psoriasis does not violate the usual rhythm of life of the sick person. The only disadvantage is peeling and inflammation on the skin. Unfortunately, to cure this disease is impossible, but to stop its development or to prevent recurrence is quite real. It is enough to perform all the doctor's appointments and to undergo regular treatment in hospital.
Psoriasis is absolutely not contagious. A single case of disease transmission from person to person not fixed. The disease is not infections and germs that are potentially dangerous to others, and the white blood cells produced by the body of the patient.
A healthy person to get psoriasis from the patient impossible. Psoriasis is not passed:
Upon contact with the skin, through the use of some everyday items with the patient (bed linen, towels, tableware).
Through saliva, sweat.
When caring for patients.
Through the blood.
Nepustuleznaya form of psoriasis
What is it? This form of the disease differs from other stable course. For nepustuleznoy forms of psoriasis is characterized by loss of practically the entire surface of the body. To this type include:
vulgar, ordinary, or blayshkovidiy.
Ordinary psoriasis is a very common, up to 90% of psoriasis patients is sick as a vulgar form of the disease.
What starts psoriasis: the first signs
In most cases, to determine psoriasis is quite simple, because the disease is not like other skin disease. Allergic rashes have less calibration compared to patches of psoriasis, in addition, the history reveals that the patient does not suffer swelling of the skin as allergies
Initial symptoms and signs of psoriasis different main features, which will be relied on by the physician in the diagnosis:
the appearance of a limited spot of pink color of different intensity;
itching in the area of psoriatic lesions;
exfoliation of a large number of the epidermis of various sizes;
the characteristic whitish color of peeling;
the appearance of grouped, dirty-white or grey crusts, without departing from psoriatic plaque;
dryness of the skin.
For psoriasis is characterized by three distinctive features:
"Effect stearinovogo spots". When carrying out scraping plaque and small transparent scales easily flake.
"The effect of terminal film". If you remove the scales, the skin to be thin, shiny, and also it will be red.
"The effect of bloody dew". After scraping of the skin are the tiny droplets of blood.
Accurate and only culprit of the disease specialists can't reveal, but multiple studies show that the disease is autoimmune, which means it is dependent on the immune system.
For some reason the immune cells, designed to protect the body from malignant changes and penetrate the upper dermal layers and produce substances that trigger inflammation. The result of this activity is proliferation – rapid division of skin cells.
According to another theory the psoriasis develops due to violation of the life cycle of the keratinocytes.
Possible causes of psoriasis:
Heredity. According to the latest scientific psoriasis are referred to genotipicheskim dermatozam with dominant transmission.
Violation of lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. If you suspect psoriasis quite often appears to change these profiles in the blood that contributes to the development of cardiovascular pathology, endocrine dysfunction and metabolic syndrome.
The presence of chronic infectious focus in the body. In the study psoriaticheskih plaques often reveals steptokokkovaya flora. On the occurrence of genetic abnormalities may influence viral and bacterial infections, such as tonsillitis, flu.
Climatic conditions – dry and hot weather can affect the progression of psoriasis, strengthen skin manifestations or conversely, to weaken them;
Anxiety or stress – as mentioned above, stressful surge directly affect the course of psoriatic disease;
Broken skin – wounds help of infection, and this leads to intoxication of the body due to inflammatory processes, because the appearance of psoriasis can trigger minor damage, but provided that there are related diseases;
Infection – outbreaks of psoriasis can be caused by the presence of pathogenic purulent, inflammatory areas, especially pathology in childhood.
One theory suggests the existence of two variants of the disease:
Psoriasis type I is inherited in the presence of immune factors affected by this form more than 60% of all patients under the age of 30 years, the prognosis is good, treatment is for life.
Type II – occurs most often at the age of 45 years is not associated with disruptions in the immune system, often striking nogtevye plate joints.
The first rash, usually formed in place of wounds, scratches, obmorozheniy, burns, on parts of the body, constantly subjected to friction. They can itch, but this is not the main feature.
Beginning psoriasis is expressed in the appearance of papules, which are small in size nodules. They have a dark pink color, dense to the touch, over the surface of the skin protrude slightly.
The initial stage of psoriasis on the skin barely noticeable and does not cause discomfort to the patient. But early treatment will help prevent severe forms of this disease, in which there is a loss of the nails of the hands and feet, mucosal surfaces, and then — of human joints.
According to statistics psoriaticheskie plaques are often:
on the outer surface of the joints;
on the back and stomach;
on the front of the thighs and forearms.
In contrast to eczema, where the rash striking the inner side of the limbs and the folds between the toes.
Characteristics and symptoms of different forms
Psoriasis depending on the shape has its characteristic symptoms on the human skin.
Blyashechniy (vulgar) is a big part of all types of psoriasis. It is characterized by the appearance of a traditional blyashek covered with white-gray spots.
Rashes appear in the local areas (elbows, scalp, etc.) in 1-2 weeks. This rash is called "guard" or "duty".
For some patients the papules are converted into aritrodermiyu.
Very rarely vulgar form appears on the face and in the genital area.
Guttate psoriasis is second most common, and is diagnosed in every tenth patient. While there are numerous and rather small rash spots all over body surface.
The greatest number of lesions observed on the limbs. On the face guttate psoriasis occurs quite rare. In case of accidental injury of the papule, the formation of ulcers. During exacerbation of any infectious process, the papules increase rapidly in size.
Not common, only 1% of the total mass of patients with psoriasis have this type of disease. In most cases, the rash is symmetric and localized on the soles and palms. Pustuleznyi psoriasis happens: generalizovanniy and localized. The latter form is more common than the previous one. GeneralizovanniyPustuleznyi psoriasis is severe.
Exudative psoriasis differs from the usual presence of scales on blayshkah, which are formed due to penetration of the exudate. The risk of incidence of psoriasis this fall:
people with thyroid disease (hypothyroidism) and having excess body weight.
Nail psoriasis occurs in 25% of patients with psoriasis. The defeat of nail plates can be isolated (usually on the hands), but usually combined with other forms and varieties of the disease. Their changes in psoriasis are almost indistinguishable from those of other skin diseases with the defeat of nails are symptoms of:
"oil stains" and "sand waves",
painless partial detachment of the plate and deformation of the type "bird claw" ,
bleeding from under the nail,
the complete rejection of the nail plate that often accompanies severe forms of psoriasis.
Treatment of psoriasis in adults
The question of how to treat psoriasis should be divided into 3 main categories: domestic use of drugs, mostly drugs, external use (ointments, etc.) and physical therapy. Secondary are used more as an auxiliary means of treatment of psoriasis.
No matter what methods of treatment of psoriasis dermatologist elects, the maximum effect brings a comprehensive approach to solution of this problem, which involves:
the use of external means;
the use of inside medication, vitamins, biologically active additives;
connect physiotherapeutic procedures;
treatment in sanatoriums with mineral waters, mud, leeches;
the appointment of a diet, fasting.
Nutrition and diet
The objectives pursued by the diet for psoriasis are:
the decrease in the number of exacerbations of the disease;
a reduction in the frequency and intensity of skin rashes;
normalization of metabolism;
stimulation of protective forces of organism;
the functioning of the digestive tract.
It is recommended in large numbers to consume foods that contain fiber. It activates the gastrointestinal tract, normalizes metabolism and weight, contains large amounts of vitamins, antioxidants and minerals, which are needed in the whole body, and unhealthy skin in psoriasis in particular.
It is recommended to use:
bread from flour,
fresh fruit and juices,
low-fat dairy products,
pumpkin seeds, flax, sunflower,
fish, poultry, rabbit,
Excludes products such:
bakery products made of flour,
products with artificial additives
alcohol and carbonated drinks
smoked meats and sausages
organ meats and red meat
the paslenovih family vegetables, citrus,
fatty and fried foods.
Food for psoriasis involves the complete exclusion of any fried foods, sweets, chocolate, pastries and all foods containing dyes and additives.
Some products are best consumed separately:
Products and cereal (pasta, bread, cereals) should not be confused with fruit of any kind;
Dairy products do not take with citrus.
Fruits (bananas, apples and melons) are eaten separately from other foods, preferably in the form of a separate meal.
The patient follow a diet for psoriasis, will soon celebrate a significant improvement in skin condition, reduction in the frequency of relapses and the disappearance of itching and discomfort. In addition, nutritional therapy helps to normalize weight and the digestive tract make a difference in the appearance of hair and nails, stimulates the immune system.