Psoriasis is a non-infectious disease that affects skin and appendages: hair, nail plate. The externals are skin rashes, and scaly, where happened, and the second name of the pathology is psoriasis. Characteristic of him alternating periods of exacerbation with periods of relative stability or Remission. Since the emergence of the disease by microorganisms, and it carries no infectious character, and is not contagious. Medical statistics show that of this pathology is approximately 3-4% of the population suffer. Psoriasis can. in the case of persons of any age, but "dear" young: more than 70% of the patients he found at the age of 18-23 years
Why do you get psoriasis?
Psoriasis is an abnormal reaction of the body to external stimuli, in consequence of which, in some parts of the body quickly of the top layer of skin to die. In the standard, the duration of the cycle of division and the subsequent maturation of the cells, 21-28 days is shortened, in the case of Psoriasis period of 3-5 days. Today, most experts are inclined to believe psoriasis multifactorial disease, hereditary Genesis.
There are several theories about the origin of the disease. After the first, there are two types of shirk:
- the first is a consequence of the poor working of the immune system that affects the skin, and inherited and manifests itself with a young age;
- the second is not and, after 40 years, affects the joints, nails, is genetically determined and not related to the malfunction of the immune system.
The followers of the other theory say that the only factor in the development of Psoriasis, a violation of the immunity provoked by various factors:
- Infectious diseases;
- poor diet;
- cold climatic conditions;
- the abuse of alcohol.
In accordance with this theory, psoriasis is spoken of a systemic disease and can affect internal organs, joints and other tissues With the defeat of the joints called psoriatic Arthritis develops in the small joints of the hands, feet suffering.
The emergence of the disease favor the following factors:
- dry and thin skin;
- the constant contact with irritating reagents: household cleaners, alcoholic solutions, cosmetics;
- excessive Hygiene leads to a disturbance of the natural protective barrier of the skin;
- Smoking, the consumption of drugs or alcohol (to promote the deterioration of the blood supply and nutrition of the skin);
- taking certain medications;
- Fungal and bacterial infections;
- the change of the climatic Region;
- Use of sharp, acidic food, chocolate;
- allergic States;
Classification of the disease
How to start the Psoriasis, as he shows what these moments determines its effects on the body – all the specific type of pathology. Today, there are several classifications of disease. One of the most common psoriasis shares on two types:
Nepustuleznaya (or simply) is a Form different stable in the course of the chronic pathology. To this group belongs, and erythrodermic Psoriasis, the main symptom of the defeat the greater part of the skin.
pustular variant comprises:
- de annularis pustulosis;
- Psoriasis Barbera;
- Psoriasis background Tsimbusha;
- Psoriasis of the palms and soles of the feet.
A separate category are:
- Drug-induced Form;
- Psoriasis Napkina;
- "inverse Psoriasis" (developed on the flexor surfaces).
Depending on the localization of the pathological process and the properties of the Manifestation of the first symptoms of psoriasis differences:
- Psoriasis of the scalp;
- Psoriasis of the skin of the Person;
- Nail (onychodystrophy);
- The form of drops;
- Psoriatic Arthritis;
- erythrodermic Psoriasis.
Psoriasis — a systemic disease that could affect in addition to spread on skin and nails, spine, is the area of the joints, tendons, immune system, endocrine, nervous system. Often the damage to the liver happens, the kidneys, the thyroid gland.
The first signs of psoriasis are usually:
- General Weakness;
- the feeling of chronic fatigue;
- depressed mood or Depression.
Due to the complex influence of the pathology on the body of experts rather tend to talk about the disease of Psoriasis.
However, the clinic connected with the defeat of certain areas of the skin. One of the first manifestations of the emergence of covered psoriatic Plaques (scales), rounded papules bright red or pink. Their function is — symmetrical arrangement on the scalp, flexor surfaces, back, and less often the mucous membrane of the genital organs, skin. Size in the early stages of the papules of a few millimeters and can, in the future, up to 10, and more characteristic to see the rash is the basis for the separation of the disease in the following ways:
- Point, the components of which are smaller than a pinhead;
- Form of a drop – papules under the Form remind the tear, and correspond to the size of cremore lenticulae core;
- Coin tiles with rounded edges can reach 5 mm in diameter.
Sometimes the rash is arc shaped, in the Form of wrestling or girl map of the Andes, with irregular edges.
The top layer of the papules are slightly soft, scaly Plaques that formed in the stratum corneum of the Epidermis. First of all, scales develop in the Central part of the plate, gradually spreads to the edges. Bright loose style by the presence of cornified cells in-between spaces filled with air. Sometimes items pink Ring, the a Zone, the growth of the Plaque and the spread of the inflammation. formed The surrounding skin remains intact.
In the removal of Plaque shiny surface showed bright red color, formed of capillary walls with significantly attenuatum, from above covered with a very thin film. Capillaries found due to violation of the normal structure of the upper layer of the skin, and its significant thinning. The change in the structure of the skin occurs, keratinocytes as a result of an incomplete maturation of the cells, leading to an inability of their normal differentiation.
Psoriasis of the scalp
The main symptom of psoriasis of the head is the occurrence of skin the surrounding skin surmounted psoriatic Plaques. They are abundant and covered with similar scales scales. The hair will not be involved in the disease process. With hair below the Zone of rashes can look over the smooth skin, the neck, behind the ears This process is due to the rapid division of keratinocytes in a Zone of defeat.
Symptoms of Psoriasis of the palms and feet
These Form a significant thickening of the Horny layer of the skin provoked to deprive them of this land. The skin cracks, rough and with. The reason for the intense cell division (the speed of your multiplication to 8 times higher than normal) and save it on the surface. In an early stage on the skin, the pustules develop, the content that is first transparent, but gradually becomes white. With time, dark welts forming. In most cases, the disease is manifested at the same time on the feet and the palms of the hands, but sometimes the Plaques occur in only one place. In the case of the spread of the process on the back side of the Hand, the speech is not of a different Form of psoriasis (Palmar-plantar).
Symptoms of Psoriasis of the nails
How does Psoriasis of the nails? For this type of disease is characterized by the diversity of the symptoms. There are mainly two types of lesions LPs:
- by the nature of the thimbles, in which the nail is covered by a small holes, reminiscent of the traces of needle-stick injuries;
- according to the type of onychomycosis – affected tissue is nail fungus: nails resemble change color, significantly thicken start and scaly. The plate can be distinguished, surrounded by a reddish border, psoriatic papula, surrounded reminiscent of the oil stain.
The dependence on the stage of the disease symptoms
Symptoms of psoriasis ranging depending on the time of year and stage. In many patients there is a "Winter" is a kind of disease, when the periods of exacerbation coming in late autumn or in Winter. In the warm season due to the intensity of the UV radiation, an improvement occurs. "Summer" type is quite rare. Within pathology there are three stages:
- Progressive, constantly adding new elements, is fixed to the active growth of already existing Plaques, the availability around the pink Zone, strong scaling, itching,.
- Stationary – growth papules stops are formed, new rashes, and visible small wrinkle in the top layer of the skin to the tiles.
- retrogressive – shell missing, the Plaques begin to fade, while the attenuation of the disease in your body remain areas with increased pigmentation.
Symptoms of psoriasis in children
The symptoms of psoriasis in children are some differences, especially in infants. The first signs are not typical. In skin folds demarcated area of redness appears, and by maceration and progressively ita decorticavit the Stratum corneum (starting with the periphery). Externally, it is reminiscent of eczematid, diaper dermatitis or Candidiasis. In small children rashes remain in not typical for Psoriasis (on the skin of the face, the mucous membranes of the genital organs, in the natural folds of the skin). Very often, skin rashes develop on the head, under the hair. Here, the accumulation of crusts are formed against the background of moderate Infiltration. Another common plot is localization of the rash to the skin are the constant friction of clothes or the effect of aggressive drugs.
The papules on the body merging gradually into platelets with irregular outlines. Their size varies from cremore lenticulae grain hands in the nursery. In the case of Teardrop Form of papular elements of small dimensions. They appear suddenly, quickly coating the body, the face, neck, scalp, and extensoris indicis area of the hands and feet.
Psoriasis in children is characterized by long and persistent power. The exception is only a kind of the form of drops, by more than a slight history with long periods of Remission. As in the case of adults, in the development of the disease three stages of to distinguish, or stage.
- On the progressive small itchy papules appear with the screw circumference growth red. The peculiarity of the symptoms in the infancy, a weak Expression of point-like bleeding, the Terminal foil and the phenomenon Stearin spot. In children, lymph nodes are increased and thickened, sometimes they are painful (especially in erythrodermic and exudative Psoriasis).
- During the transition to the stationary Phase peripheral growth stops, the strength of the flattening of the Infiltration in the center of the Plaque and the reduction of the shell.
- The Regressive Phase is characterized by resorption of the elements of the rash. Sometimes, around you, you notice the characteristic depigmented bezel. The land of the former rash losing Pigment, or conversely, Hyper-pigmentation. The lymph nodes are soft and reduce in size.
Diffuse lesions are observed on the palms and soles of the feet of the child. There are also cracks and the Infiltration of the skin. In the case of the most common forms of dermatoses affected nails: pushing it in point form or longitudinal furrows. Severe Psoriasis leads to a deformation of the nails.
Pustular Psoriasis – a rarity in children. It can occur more than adults. For this disease is characteristic for a severe course with a significant deterioration in the condition and the increase of the temperature.
arthropathic variety in the age of the child. In rare cases, a small number of patients suggest the presence of joint pain.