Is ubiquitous, and often occurs in the Form of epidemics. The disease can have on all species of fungi of the genus Trichophyton and Microsporum.
The clinical picture of fungal infections of the scalp determines the ecology of the pathogen, the manner of arrangement of the elements of the fungus in Volos and the severity of the inflammatory response in the skin as a response to the introduction of the fungus.
Superficial disease of the scalp usually occurs in children aged 6 to 10 years, rarely – from 1 to 5 years and from 11 to 15 years. Many of the patients in puberty, infection, and a tendency to self-solution. If this is not the case, the so-called chronic disease of the scalp occurs, the observed mainly in adult women.
Source of infection in superficial diseases of the head, the sick people and things with which he came in contact (hats, scarves, combs, brushes, shears, bedding, etc.) are skin.
The clinical picture. On the head skin bags of mild redness and light flaking of the skin form, the irregularly round shape, vague and unclear boundaries. The most characteristic Symptom is the thinning of hair in the lesions, because of the Fallout. Some of the hairs to break at the level of 2-3 mm above the surface of the skin and the appearance of hemp is gray in color; others break off directly at the output of your mouths of the hair follicles, and have the appearance of "black dots". To recognize just as broken hair at the lightly pathogens.
Erythemal-bubble Form by the appearance of scattered, not very sharply limited, pink tile, several on the level of the skin and small blisters. Then a small shell is formed, and at the point the bubbles are small light crust appear. Hairs break off at the level of the surface of the skin.
Impetigious Form occurs when the superficial disease of the head, complicated skin secondary infection. The affected skin of the head skin in this crust and very Impetigo resemble.
Chronic "black-spotted" disease of the head, a continuation of the illness of the child's age, not the past of puberty the skin in General. The disease of the scalp takes a chronic course, almost exclusively in adult women, which is usually about endogenous predisposing factors: dysfunction of the gonads, the thyroid, autonomic disorders, hypovitaminosis, etc.
The disease occurs predominantly in the deleted Form, imperceptible to the patient and others. Often the reason for the investigation of adult women the appearance is in the family, sick children, or grandchildren.
On some pages, lesions of shell marked with indistinct borders and fragments of hair. Sometimes the disease is manifests itself in the Form of small dots with a dense crust at the mouth of the follicle. The clinical Symptom is pathognomonic of the broken skin-hair – so-called "black spots are on the level".
Rarely superficial disease of the scalp inflammatory character acquires with the appearance of the pustules, and infiltrates.
Isolated chronic disorder of the scalp is very rare. Usually infectious process of nature and, together with the defeat of the scalp lesions observed spread on the smooth skin of the trunk, palms, soles of the feet.
The disease of the scalp is celebrated almost exclusively in children, adult patients make up only 10-12 %. The infection of children occurs most frequently between the ages of 1 to 13, rarely 15 years. To the time of puberty in all patients, spontaneous healing.
The disease is extremely contagious, both for children as well as animals in children's groups (schools, nursery, kindergartens) it can occur in the Form of epidemics.
Sources of contamination and routes of transmission in the case of disease, caused by fungi, are the same as in the case of superficial diseases of the head. The main sources of infections in humans Zoo mushrooms are the sick cats and dogs.
Clinical symptoms of the disease develop after an incubation period lasts on average 4-6 weeks.
The hair formed around the spot, which gradually increases, grasp the skin all of the major areas of the skin of the head. Inflammatory changes in the lesions are only slightly pronounced. Observed sometimes at the beginning of the disease, the emergence of bubbles with the content of sulphur, crusts.
At the height of his development of the disease the tendency to confluence of the herd is limited by the presence on the scalp 1-2 right large round or oval, sharply. The skin in the area of these Foci was slightly edematous and densely covered with gray-white coating (like flour). All the hair in the lesions of a height of 4-6 mm on the appearance of the skin and short-cropped, there are patches of baldness. At the periphery of the lesions, the hair is easy to blow. The extracted hairs at the base, loosely covered with a white lid, making it resemble a glass rod, the first immersed in glue and then in fine Sand.
Favus is a chronic fungal infection, beginning in childhood and without a propensity to self-treatment, often persistent in adults. Favus affects mainly the part of the head, approximately in 20 % of cases in the process of nails involved and significantly less likely to be – smooth skin.
The most important causative agent of Favus to Trichophyton schonleinii.
Source of infection in the case of Favus, a sick man, rarely sick animals (mice, cats).
Contagion of Favus contribute to poor sanitary conditions, non-observance of rules of personal Hygiene, poor nutrition, but also certain customs, for example, long, continuous wearing of headgear for religious and other reasons.
The clinical picture of Favus consists of three main symptoms:
- Formation on the skin specifically for Favus morphological elements of skin rash, the so-called flap-sculling, which is a pure culture of the fungus;
- the defeat of the hair, the fail;
- the formation of scar tissue atrophy and the strong loss of hair on the head.
The sculling have the appearance of dry formations of bright yellow color, clean from the hair. At a long current of of the disease without treatment, sculling merge, forming a continuous yellowish crusts, similar to a honeycomb (hence the name favus baked, honeycomb). sculling close to the skin, with great effort, the individual loose parts, a wound is pale pink, smooth, slightly damp Erosion.
On the scalp, except for the typical sculling Form, occurs a species of Favus. Rare suppurative Form of the disease is observed.
Deep disease of the scalp the most common zoophilic called trichophytons.
Human infection occurs usually by direct contact with sick animals, less often by different objects, on the fungi, the hair and dandruff of the sick animals. Less healthy people get of patients with deep disease.
Infiltration reach a size of 6-8 cm in diameter, has a bright red or blue in color and sharply outlined borders. The number of lesions may 5-6 up to. The surface infiltrates with lots of deep pustules and hair. Externally unchanged, the hair is often brittle crust as a result of a deep purulent inflammation.
Sometimes the disease begins with the appearance of vesicles, pustules, or peeling of the skin.
The patients complain of more or less violent pain in the lesions. By the Absorption of the decay products of the fungi and лизированных tissue intoxication of the organism of the patient there is a feeling of malaise, weakness, headache, increased body temperature, sometimes up to 38-39 °C, developed regional lymphadenitis.
Depth disease occurs acutely, susceptible to solution in 2-3 months. after the clearance of infiltrates. Healing occurs by scarring, that in the case of extensive mass poverty leads to permanent hair loss.